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Easter - Includes information on the feast and customs Easter Controversy - The dispute regarding the proper time of observing Easter Eastern Churches - Eastern Churches depended originally on the Eastern Empire at Constantinople Eastern Schism - From the time of Diotrephes (III John 1:9-10) there have been continual schisms, of which the greater number were in the East Ebionites - Two varieties: the earlier group called Ebionites denied the divinity of Christ; the later Ebionites were a Gnostic sect who believed that matter was eternal and was God's body Ecclesiastes - The name given to the book of Holy Scripture which usually follows the Proverbs; the Hebrew Qoheleth probably has the same meaning Ecclesiastical Addresses - Rules as to what is fitting and customary in the matter of ecclesiastical correspondence Ecclesiastical Architecture - All ecclesiastical architecture may be said to have been evolved from two distinct germ-cells, the oblong and the circular chamber Ecclesiastical Art - Article explores the origin, history, and types Ecclesiastical Buildings - This term comprehends all constructions erected for the celebration of liturgical acts, whatever be the name given to them, church, chapel, oratory, and basilica Ecclesiastical Forum - Ecclesiastical jurisdiction is distinguished into that of the internal and external forum Ecclesiasticus - The longest of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible, and the last of the Sapiential writings in the Vulgate of the Old Testament Eck, Johann - Theologian and principal adversary of Luther. Detailed profile by J.P. Kirsch Eckhart, Meister - Biographical article on the Dominican theologian and mystic. Includes bibliography Eclecticism - A philosophical term meaning either a tendency of mind in a thinker to conciliate the different views or positions taken in regard to problems, or a system in philosophy which seeks the solution of its fundamental problems by selecting and uniting what it regards as true in the various philosophical schools Economics - The social science which treats of man's activities in providing the material means to satisfy his wants Ecstasy - Offers details of false views Ecumenical Councils - Article looking at the definition, place in church governance and short historical sketches of each council until Vatican I Ecumenism - Includes the Catholic Church together with the many other religious communions which have either directly or indirectly, separated from it Eden, Garden of - The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden Edessa - A titular archiepiscopal see in that part of Mesopotamia formerly known as Osrhoene Edinburgh - Derives its name from the time (about A.D. 620) when the fortress of Edwin's burgh was raised on a lofty spur of the Pentland Hills, overlooking the Firth of Forth, and established the Anglian dominion in the northern part of the Northumbrian Kingdom Editions of the Bible - Includes Hebrew and Greek editions Edmund Campion, Saint - English Jesuit, martyr, d. 1581. Biographical article Edmund the Martyr, Saint - Short biography of the King of East Anglia, who died in 870 Edom - Also known as Idumea Education - In the broadest sense, education includes all those experiences by which intelligence is developed, knowledge acquired, and character formed. In a narrower sense, it is the work done by certain agencies and institutions, the home and the school, for the express purpose of training immature minds Education of the Blind - Includes statistics and history Education of the Deaf - History, aids, and alphabets are discussed Edward III - Detailed biographical article on the King of England Edward the Confessor, Saint - Short biography of the King of England, who died in 1066 Edward the Martyr, Saint - King of England, assassinated at the age of 16 or 17 at the behest of his stepmother. St. Edward was murdered in 979 Eginhard - Historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the eastern part of the Frankish Empire; d. 14 March, 840, at Seligenstadt Egoism - Synopsis of this ethical system, and short refutation Egypt - Provides information on history, religion, and literature Einhard - Historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the eastern part of the Frankish Empire; d. 14 March, 840, at Seligenstadt El Cid - Popular hero of the chivalrous age of Spain, born at Burgos c. 1040; died at Valencia, 1099. He was given the title of seid or cid (lord, chief) by the Moors and that of campeador (champion) by his admiring countrymen Elect - Denotes in general one chosen or taken by preference from among two or more; as a theological term it is equivalent to 'chosen as the object of mercy or Divine favour, as set apart for eternal life' Election - In its broadest sense election means a choice among many persons, things, or sides to be taken. In the stricter juridical sense it means the choice of one person among many for a definite charge or function Election, Papal - The method of electing the pope has varied considerably at different periods of the history of the Church. . . Eleutherius, Pope Saint - Native of Nicopolis, served as deacon in the Roman Church, d. about 189 Elevation, The - The Elevation of the Mass is a rite of comparatively recent introduction El Greco - Spanish artist. Born in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; died at Toledo, 7 April, 1614 Eli - Discusses the Old Testament priest, and the New Testament father of Joseph Elias - Old Testament prophet Eligius, Saint - Or Eloi. Bishop of Noyon-Tournai, founded several monasteries, d. 660 Elijah - Old Testament prophet Eliseus - A Prophet of Israel Elisha - A Prophet of Israel Elizabeth - The wife of Zachary, mother of St. John the Baptist, and relative of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Some believe that it was Elizabeth who proclaimed the Magnificat Elizabeth Ann Seton, Saint - Biography of the founder of the Sisters of Charity in the United States Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint - Also called St. Elizabeth of Thuringia. Biographical article on the princess, widow, Third Order Franciscan, who died in 1231 Elizabeth of Portugal, Saint - Queen, also known as St. Isabel, d. 1336 Elohim - The common name for God Elvira, Council of - Held early in the fourth century at Elliberis, or Illiberis, in Spain, a city now in ruins not far from Granada Ember Days - The days at the beginning of the seasons ordered by the Church as days of fast and abstinence Embolism - An insertion, addition, interpretation. The word has two specific uses in the language of the Church; in the prayer and in the calendar Embroidery - In Christian worship embroidery was used from early times to ornament vestments Emiliani, Saint Jerome - Soldier, priest, founder of the Order of Somascha, d. 1537 Emmanuel - Signifies 'God with us' (Matthew 1:23), and is the name of the child predicted in Isaias 7:14: 'Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel' Emmaus - A titular see in Palaestina Prima, suffragan of Caesarea Emmerich, Anne Catherine - An Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic, born 8 September, 1774, at Flamsche, near Coesfeld, in the Diocese of Munster, Westphalia, Germany; died at Dulmen, 9 February, 1824 Empiricism - Primarily, and in its psychological application, the term signifies the theory that the phenomena of consciousness are simply the product of sensuous experience, i.e. of sensations variously associated and arranged Encyclical - According to its etymology, an encyclical is nothing more than a circular letter. In modern times, usage has confined the term almost exclusively to certain papal documents which differ in their technical form from the ordinary style of either Bulls or Briefs, and which in their superscription are explicitly addressed to the patriarchs, primates, archbishops, and bishops of the Universal Church in communion with the Apostolic See Energy, The Law of Conservation of - Includes the history and philosophy England (Before 1066) - History of the occupation, conversion, and development England (1066-1558) - This term England is here restricted to one constituent, the largest and most populous, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland England (After 1558) - Article on the relation of the post-Reformation Catholic church to the English state English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729) - Since this article was published, some of the causes for canonization have been successful, and others have progressed from 'venerable' to 'blessed.' English Hierarchy, Reorganization of the - The restoration of the English hierarchy in 1850 was a milestone for English Catholics after the Penal Times English Literature - Latin, French, Italian, Greek, and Spanish literatures are a few of the influences English Revolution of 1688 - The history of the Revolution resolves itself into a catalogue of various ill-judged measures which alienated the support of the Established Church, the Tory party, and the nation as a whole Enoch - The name of the son of Cain, of a nephew of Abraham, of the first-born of Ruben, and of the son of Jared and the father of Mathusala Enoch, Book of - Introductory article Envy - Taken to be synonymous with jealousy Epact - The surplus days of the solar over the lunar year; hence, more freely, the number of days in the age of the moon on 1 January of any given year. The whole system of epacts is based on the Metonic Lunar Cycle, and serves to indicate the days of the year on which the new moons occur Eparchy - Originally the name of one of the divisions of the Roman Empire Ephesians, Epistle to the - The letter which, in the manuscripts containing the Epistles of St. Paul, bears the title 'To the Ephesians' comprises two parts distinctly separated by a doxology (Eph., iii, 20 sq.) Ephesus - A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century B.C. by Androcles, son of the Athenian King Codrus, with the aid of Ionian colonists Ephesus, Council of - The third ecumenical council, held in 431 Ephesus, Robber Council of - The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of Chalcedon, 451, and have thus been preserved. The remainder of the Acts are known only through a Syriac translation by a Monophysite monk, published from the British Museum MS. Addit. 14,530, written in the year 535 Ephesus, Seven Sleepers of - One of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after wakes up to find the world changed Ephod - a kind of garment, which differed according to its use by the high-priest, by other persons present at religious services, or as the object of idolatrous worship Ephraem, Saint - Long article on the life and works of the hermit, deacon, poet Epicureanism - In its popular sense, the word stands for a refined and calculating selfishness, seeking not power or fame, but the pleasures of sense, particularly of the palate, and those in company rather than solitude Epiklesis - The name of a prayer that occurs in all Eastern liturgies (and originally in Western liturgies also) after the words of Institution, in which the celebrant prays that God may send down His Holy Spirit to change this bread and wine into the Body and Blood of His Son Epiphanius of Salamis - Biographical article on the fourth-century monk and bishop Epiphany - The feast was called among the Syrians denho (up-going), a name to be connected with the notion of rising light expressed in Luke. I, 78 Episcopalians - Protestant denomination born from Anglicanism Epistemology - That branch of philosophy which is concerned with the value of human knowledge Epistle (in Scripture) - The Old Testament exhibits two periods in its idea of an epistle: first, it presents the epistle under the general concept of a book or a writing; secondly, it regards the epistle as a distinct literary form. The New Testament presents a very highly developed form of an epistle Erasmus, Desiderius - Article by Joseph Sauer. An extensive overview of the life, works and impact of this scholar Erastus and Erastianism - The name 'Erastianism' is often used in a somewhat loose sense as denoting an undue subservience of the Church to the State Erin, The Twelve Apostles of - Twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the School of Clonard in Meath Eriugena, John Scotus - Article by William Turner recounts this scholar's life and influence, and evaluates his teachings Error - Reduplicatively regarded, is in one way or another the product of ignorance. But besides the lack of information which it implies, it adds the positive element of a mental judgment, by which something false is held to be true, or something true avouched to be false Esau - The eldest son of Isaac and Rebecca, the twin-brother of Jacob Eschatology - A survey of the subject in various pre-Christian religions and cultures, an examination of the development of eschatology in the Old Testament, brief overview of Christian teaching Escorial, The - A building in Spain situated on the south-eastern slope of the Sierra Guadarrama about twenty-seven miles northwest of Madrid. Its proper title is El Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial, Escorial being the name of a small town in the vicinity Esdras - Or Ezra. Article on the man and the books which bear his name Eskimo - A littoral race occupying the entire Arctic coast and outlying islands of America from below Cook Inlet in Alaska to the mouth of the St. Lawrence ESP - A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to denote 'the ability of one mind to impress or to be impressed by another mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense' Essence and Existence - Essence, described as that whereby a thing is what it is. Existence is that whereby the essence is an actuality in the line of being Essenes - One of three leading Jewish sects mentioned by Josephus as flourishing in the second century B.C., the others being the Pharisees and the Sadducees Establishment, The - The union of Church and State setting up a definite and distinctive relation between the two is frequently expressed in English by the use of the word 'establishment' Esther - Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is identified with Xerxes (485-465 B.C.) Eternity - Eternity is defined by Boetius (De Consol. Phil., V, vi) as 'possession, without succession and perfect, of interminable life' Ethelbert, Saint - King of Kent, a worshipper of Odin well into his adulthood, converted to Christianity, d. 616. Biography Etheldreda, Saint - Queen of Northumbria, twice married for reasons of state, d. 679. Biography Ethics - Many writers regard ethics as any scientific treatment of the moral order and divide it into theological, or Christian, ethics (moral theology) and philosophical ethics (moral philosophy) Ethiopia - Includes geography, history, and religion Eucharist, Introduction to the - The name given to the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar its twofold aspect of sacrament and Sacrifice of Mass, and in which Jesus Christ is truly present under the bread and wine Eucharist, as a Sacrament - Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the Blessed Eucharist is unquestionably a sacrament of the Church Eucharist, as a Sacrifice - The word Mass (missa) first established itself as the general designation for the Eucharistic Sacrifice in the West after the time of Pope Gregory the Great, the early Church having used the expression the 'breaking of bread' (fractio panis) or 'liturgy' Eucharist, Early Symbols of the - The earliest and always the favourite symbol of the Eucharist in the monuments was that inspired by the miracle of the multiplication of the loaves and fishes; the banquet of the seven Disciples appears only in one (second-century) catacomb scene; the miracle of Cana in two, one of which is of the early third, the other of the fourth, century Eucharist, Real Presence of Christ in - Article considers: the fact of the Real Presence; the several allied dogmas grouped about it; and the speculations of reason, so far as speculative investigation regarding the august mystery under its various aspects is permissible, and so far as it is desirable to illumine it by the light of philosophy Eucharistic Prayer - Article divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of the Canon; (III) The text and rubrics of the Canon; (IV) Mystical interpretations Eudes, Blessed Jean - French missionary, religious founder, writer, d. 1680 Eugene I, Saint, Pope - Made bishop of Rome after Pope St. Martin I had been in exile for 14 months. Eugene died in 657 Eugene II, Pope - Elected 6 June, 824; died 27 Aug., 827 Eugene III, Pope - Cistercian monk and abbot chosen by unanimous vote of the College of Cardinals to succeed Lucius II. Blessed Eugene died in 1151 Eugene IV, Pope - Gabriello Condulmaro, or Condulmerio, b. at Venice, 1388; elected 4 March, 1431; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1447 Eugenics - Eugenics literally means 'good breeding'. It is defined as the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally Eulalia of Barcelona, Saint - Martyred 12 February, 304, patron saint of sailors Eunomianism - A phase of extreme Arianism prevalent amongst a section of Eastern churchmen from about 350 until 381; as a sect it is not heard of after the middle of the fifth century Europe - The conception of Europe as a distinct division of the earth, separate from Asia and Africa, had its origin in ancient times Eusebius, Saint - Bishop of Vercelli, exiled for defending St. Athanasius, anti-Arian, martyr, d. 371 Eusebius, Saint, Pope - Reigned for only four months, in 309 or 310, was deported, died in exile, is counted as a martyr Eusebius, Chronicle of - Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the 'Chronograph' or 'Chronographies'; the second he terms the 'Canon', or 'Canons', and also the 'Chronological Canons' Eusebius of Cæsarea - Biographical article on the 'Father of Church History.' Eusebius of Nicomedia - Bishop, place and date of birth unknown; d. 341. He was a pupil at Antioch of Lucian the Martyr, in whose famous school he learned his Arian doctrines Eustachius, Bartolomeo - A distinguished anatomist of the Renaissance period Euthanasia - From Greek eu, well, and thanatos, death, easy, painless death Eutyches - An heresiarch of the fifth century Eutychianism - Eutychianism and Monophysitism are usually identified as a single heresy. But as some Monophysites condemned Eutyches, the name Eutychians is given by some writers only to those in Armenia Eutychianus, Saint, Pope - The successor of Pope Felix I. Eutychianus died in 283 Evangelical Church - Almost from the beginning the new Evangelical Church was split, first into two communions, the Lutheran and the Reformed, then into a multitude of sects Evangelical Counsels - The difference between a precept and a counsel lies in this, that the precept is a matter of necessity while the counsel is left to the free choice of the person to whom it is proposed Evangelist - In the New Testament this word, in its substantive form, occurs only three times: Acts, xxi, 8; Eph., iv, 11; II Tim., iv, 5. It seems to indicate not so much an order in the early ecclesiastical hierarchy as a function Evaristus, Pope Saint - Sometimes called Aristus. Martyr, died about 107 Eve - First woman; wife of Adam Eve of a Feast - In the first ages, during the night before every feast, a vigil was kept. In the evening the faithful assembled in the place or church where the feast was to be celebrated and prepared themselves by prayers, readings from Holy Writ (now the Offices of Vespers and Matins), and sometimes also by hearing a sermon Evil - In a large sense, described as the sum of the opposition, which experience shows to exist in the universe, to the desires and needs of individuals; whence arises, among human beings at least, the sufferings in which life abounds Evolution, Catholics and - Discussed under the headings: (1) Scientific Hypothesis vs. Philosophical Speculation; (2) Theistic vs. Atheistic Theories of Evolution; (3) The Theory of Evolution vs. Darwinism; and (4) Human Evolution vs. Plant and Animal Evolution Evolution, History and Scientific Foundation of - History, definition, and various arguments Ex Cathedra - Literally 'from the chair', a theological term which signifies authoritative teaching and is more particularly applied to the definitions given by the Roman pontiff Examination of Conscience - By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ascertaining their conformity with, or difformity from, the moral law Exarch - A title used in various senses both civilly and ecclesiastically Excardination and Incardination - In the ecclesiastical sense the words are used to denote that a given person is freed from the jurisdiction of one bishop and is transferred to that of another Excommunication - Exclusion from the communion, the principal and severest censure, is a medicinal, spiritual penalty that deprives the guilty Christian of all participation in the common blessings of ecclesiastical society Exegesis, Biblical - The branch of theology which investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred Scripture Exodus (See Pentateuch) - The name of the first five books of the Old Testament. Exorcism - Exorcism is (1) the act of driving out, or warding off, demons, or evil spirits, from persons, places, or things, which are believed to be possessed or infested by them, or are liable to become victims or instruments of their malice; (2) the means employed for this purpose, especially the solemn and authoritative adjuration of the demon, in the name of God, or any of the higher power in which he is subject Exorcist - (1) In general, any one who exorcises or professes to exorcise demons (cf. Acts 19:13); (2) in particular, one ordained by a bishop for this office, ordination to which is the second of the four minor orders of the Western Church Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament - A manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing it, with proper solemnity, to the view of the faithful in order that they may pay their devotions before it Extension - Philosophical term. From Lat. ex-tendere, to spread out Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) - A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to denote 'the ability of one mind to impress or to be impressed by another mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense' Extreme Unction - A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill Exultet - The hymn in praise of the paschal candle sung by the deacon, in the liturgy of Holy Saturday Eyck, Hubert and Jan van - Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and consequently of all the schools of painting in the North of Europe Eymard, Venerable Pierre-Julien - Biographical article on the French priest and founder Ezekiel - Son of Buzi, and was one of the priests who, in the year 598 B.C., had been deported together with Joachim as prisoners from Jerusalem Ezra - Or Esdras. Article on the man and the books which bear his name