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Gabbatha - The Aramaic appellation of a place in Jerusalem, designated also under the Greek name of Lithostrotos Gabriel the Archangel, Saint - One of the three archangels mentioned in the Bible Gad - A proper name which designates in the Bible, (I), a patriarch; (II), a tribe of Israel; (III), a prophet; (IV), a pagan deity Gaetano, Saint - Also known as St. Gaetano. Biography of the founder of the Theatines Galatians, Epistle to the - Background on Galatia, purpose and date, a summary of its contents, its importance and a discussion of some difficulties Galerius, Valerius Maximianus - Galerius, a native of Illyria, was made Caesar 1 March, 293, by Diocletian, whose daughter Valeria he married and who in turn adopted her husband Galilee - The native land of Jesus Christ, where He began His ministry and performed many of His works, and whence He drew His Apostles Galilei, Galileo - Although in the popular mind Galileo is remembered chiefly as an astronomer, it was not in this character that he made really substantial contributions to human knowledge, but rather in the field of mechanics, and especially of dynamics, which science may be said to owe its existence to him Gall, Abbey of Saint - In Switzerland, Canton St. Gall, 30 miles southeast of Constance; for many centuries one of the chief Benedictine abbeys in Europe; founded about 613, and named after Gallus, an Irishman, the disciple and companion of St. Columbanus in his exile from Luxeuil Gallicanism - This term is used to designate a certain group of religious opinions for some time peculiar to the Church of France, or Gallican Church, and the theological schools of that country Gallican Rite, The - The rite which prevailed in Gaul until about the middle or end of the eighth century Gallitzin, Demetrius Augustine - Prince, priest, and missionary (1770-1840) Galvani, Luigi - Physician, b. at Bologna, Italy, 9 September, 1737; d. there, 4 December, 1798 Gama, Vasco da - The discover of the sea route to East Indies; born at Sines, Province of Alemtejo, Portugal, about 1469; died at Cochin, India, 24 December, 1524 Gamaliel - Famous Pharisee and Rabbi Gambling - The staking of money or other thing of value on the issue of a game of chance García Moreno, Gabriel - Ecuadorean patriot and statesman; b. at Guayaquil, 24 December, 1821; assassinated at Quito, 6 August, 1875 Garland - A wreath of flowers or evergreens formerly used in connection with baptismal, nuptial, and funeral rites, as well as in solemn processions Gaudete Sunday - The third Sunday of Advent, so called from the first word of the Introit at Mass (Gaudete, i.e. Rejoice) Gaul, Christian - The Church of Gaul first appeared in history in connexion with the persecution at Lyons under Marcus Aurelius (177) Gedeon - One of the Greater Judges of Israel. He belonged to the tribe of Manasses, and to the family of Abiezer Gelasius I, Pope Saint - An assessment of his pontificate. He died in 496 Gelasius II, Pope - Reigned 1118-1119 Genealogy (in the Bible) - The word genealogy occurs only twice in the New Testament. In these passages commentators explain the word as referring to the Gentile theogonies, or to the Essene generation of angels, or to the emanation of spirits and aeons as conceived by the Gnostics, or to the genealogies of Jesus Christ, or finally to the genealogies of the Old Testament construed into a source of an occult doctrine Genealogy of Christ - Offers the genealogy according to Saint Matthew and Saint Luke General Judgment - To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the 'Day of the Lord' (Joel 3:4; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment. In the New Testament the second Parusia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine Generation - Definitions include: a definite period of time, with a special reference to the average length of man's life; an indefinite period of time, of time past; the men who lived in the same period of time who were contemporaries; a race or class of men; and a dwelling place or habitation Genesius - Five people with this name including: Genesius of Rome; Genesius of Arles; Genesius, Bishop of Clermont; Genesius Count of Clermont; and Genesius of Lyons Genevieve, Saint - Patroness of Paris, d. 512 Genoa - Archdiocese in Liguria, Northern Italy Gentiles - In the English versions of both Testaments it collectively designates the nations distinct from the Jewish people Genuflexion - To genuflect, to bend the knee Geography, Biblical - With the exception of the didactic literature, there is no book in the Bible which, to a greater or less extent, does not contain mention of, or allusions to, the geography and topography of the Holy Land Geography and the Church - Explains the nature of this science and the course of its evolution George, Saint - Long, scholarly article on St. George, martyr, patron saint of England George, Orders of Saint - Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as mutually independent bodies having nothing in common but the veneration of St. George, the patron of knighthood Georgetown University - Founded immediately after the Revolutionary War, by the incorporated Catholic Clergy of Maryland, who selected from their Body Trustees, and invested them with full power to choose a President and appoint Professors. Since the year 1805, it has been under the direction of Society of Jesus' Georgia - The largest of the original thirteen United States; bounded on the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, on the east by the Savannah River and the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Florida, and on the west by Florida and Alabama Gerald, Saint - English monk, Bishop of Mayo, d. 731. Brief biography Gerard Majella, Saint - Tailor, Redemptorist, called 'Father of the Poor,' d. 1755 Germain, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre - A married lawyer, rather worldly, became Bishop of Auxerre, d. 448 or 450. Biography Germaine Cousin, Saint - Sickly, pious shepherdess, cruelly treated by her stepmother. St. Germaine died in 1601, at the age of 22 Germans in the United States - Includes all German-speaking people, whether originally from Germany proper, Austria, Switzerland, or Luxemburg Germany - History divided by time periods, beginning with before 1556 German Literature - History starting with the pre-Christian period to 800 A.D Gertrude of Nivelles, Saint - Benedictine abbess of a double monastery, d. 659 Gertrude the Great, Saint - Benedictine, mystic, author, d. 1301 or 1302 Gervasius and Protasius, Saints - Martyred in Milan, probably in the second century Gethsemane - The place in which Jesus Christ suffered the Agony and was taken prisoner by the Jews Ghibellines and Guelphs - Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the greater part of the later Middle Ages Ghirlandajo - Florentine painter; b. 1449; d. 11 Jan., 1494 Ghost Dance - The principal ceremonial rite of an Indian religion which originated about 1887 with Wovoka, alias jack Wilson, an Indian of the Piute tribe in Nevada Gideon - One of the Greater Judges of Israel. He belonged to the tribe of Manasses, and to the family of Abiezer Gift of Miracles - The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the Corinthians (xii, 9, 10), among the extraordinary graces of the Holy Ghost Gift, Supernatural - Something conferred on nature that is above all the powers (vires) of created nature Giles, Saint - Also known as Aegidius. Hermit and then abbot in late seventh-century Gaul Giotto di Bondone - A Florentine painter, and founder of the Italian school of painting, b. most probably, in the village of Vespignano near Florence; d. at Milan, 8 Jan., 1337 Giuliani, Veronica - Short biographical article on this Capuchin, who died in 1727 Giulio Romano - A famous architect and painter, the best-known of Raphael's pupils, and the unique representative of the so-called 'Roman School'; b. at Rome in 1492; d. at Mantua in 1546 Glastonbury Abbey - Benedictine monastery, Somersetshire, England, pre-eminently the centre of early Christian tradition in England Glendalough, School of - Founded by St. Kevin Gloria in Excelsis Deo - The great doxology (hymnus angelicus) in the Mass is a version of a very old Greek form'. It begins with the words sung by the angels at Christ's birth (Luke 2:14). To this verse others were added very early, forming a doxology Glory - In the English version of the Bible the word Glory, one of the commonest in the Scripture, is used to translate several Hebrew terms in the Old Testament, and the Greek doxa in the New Testament. Sometimes the Catholic versions employ brightness, where others use glory Glory Be - The doxology in the form in which we know it has been used since about the seventh century all over Western Christendom, except in one corner Glosses, Scriptural - The word gloss designates not only marginal notes, but also words or remarks inserted for various reasons in the very text of the Scriptures Glossolalia - A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae, designed to aid in the outer development of the primitive Church Gloves, Episcopal - Liturgical gloves are a liturgical adornment reserved for bishops and cardinals Gluttony - The excessive indulgence in food and drink Gnosticism - History of Gnosticism from its pre-Christian roots through its developed doctrines concerning cosmogony, the Sophia-myth, soteriology, and eschatology. Includes information on rites, schools, and literature Goa - Archdiocese in India God - Links to five articles about the subject "God", Etymology of the Word - Anglo-Saxon God; German Gott; akin to Persian khoda; Hindu khooda God, Existence of - The arguments for God's existence are variously classified and entitled by different writers, but all agree in recognizing the distinction between a priori, or deductive, and a posteriori, or inductive reasoning in this connection God, Nature and Attributes of - Covered as natural reason and faith God, Relation of the Universe to - Sections include essential dependence of the universe on God, divine immanence and transcendence, and possibility of the supernatural God, Three Persons of - The term employed to signify the central doctrine of the Christian religion, the truth that in the unity of the Godhead there are three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, these three persons being truly distinct one from another Godfrey of Bouillon - Duke of Lower Lorraine and first King of Jerusalem, son of Eustache II, Count of Boulogne, and of Ida, daughter of Godfrey the Bearded, Duke of Lower Lorraine; b. probably at Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1060; d. at Jerusalem, 18 July, 1100 Gog and Magog - Names, respectively, of a king and of his supposed kingdom, mentioned several times in chapters 38 and 39 of the Book of Ezechiel, and once in the Apocalypse (20:7) Golden Bull - A fundamental law of the Holy Roman Empire; probably the best known of all the many ordinances of the imperial diet Golden Calf - An object of worship among the Hebrews, mention of which occurs principally in Ex., xxxii, where the story of the molten calf of Aaron is narrated, and in 1 Kings 12 (cf. 2 Chronicles 11), in connection with the policy of Jeroboam after the schism of the ten tribes Golden Rose - A precious and sacred ornament made of pure gold by skilled artificers, which the popes have been accustomed for centuries to bless each year, and occasionally confer upon illustrious churches and sanctuaries as a token of special reverence and devotion, upon Catholic kings or queens, princes or princesses, renowned generals or other distinguished personages, upon governments or cities conspicuous for their Catholic spirit and loyalty to the Holy See, as a mark of esteem and paternal affection Golgotha - The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ Gonzaga, Saint Aloysius - Short biography of this Jesuit student, who died in 1591 at the age of 23 Gonzaga, Scipione - Cardinal; b. at Mantua, 11 November, 1542; d. at San Martino, 11 January, 1593 Good - The moral good (bonum honestum) consists in the due ordering of free action or conduct according to the norm of reason, the highest faculty, to which it is to conform Good, Highest, The - (1)Utilitarianism, when the highest good is identified with happiness; (2)Rational Deontologism, when the highest good is identified with virtue or duty; (3)Rational Eudaemonism, or tempered Deontologism, when both virtue and happiness are combined in the highest good Good Faith - A phrase employed to designate the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively unfounded, conviction as to the truth or falsehood of a proposition or body of opinion, or as to the rectitude or depravity of a line of conduct Good Friday - The Friday on which the Church keeps the anniversary of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ Good Shepherd, Our Lady of Charity of the - The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who wish to do penance for their iniquities and to lead a truly christian life Gordian - There were three Roman emperors of this name, who reigned between A.D. 237-44, and all of whom met with violent deaths Gordon Riots - This agitation, so called from the head and spirit of the movement, Lord George Gordon, convulsed the metropolis of England from 2 June till 9 June, 1780 Gorkum, The Martyrs of - Their beatification took place on 14 Nov., 1675, and their canonization on 29 June, 1865 Gospel and Gospels - The word Gospel usually designates a written record of Christ's words and deeds Gospel in the Liturgy - From the very earliest times the public reading of parts of the Bible was an important element in the Liturgy inherited from the service of the Synagogue Gospel of Mark - The Second Gospel, like the other two Synoptics, deals chiefly with the Galilean ministry of Christ, and the events of the last week at Jerusalem Gothic Architecture - History of the style Goupil, René - Short biography of the Jesuit missionary, martyred in 1642 Government Authority - The moral power of command, supported by physical coercion, which the State exercises over its members Grace - Leads to four articles on the subject Grace, Actual - A grace that is given for the performance of salutary acts and is present and disappears with the action itself Grace, Supernatural - Treatise on this fundamental building block of Christianity Grace, Controversies on - Controversies that are concerned chiefly with the relation between grace and free will Grace at Meals - One of the most ancient formulae of prayer at meals is found in a treatise of the fourth century, attributed without foundation to Saint Athanasius Gradual - In English often called Grail, is the oldest and most important of the four chants that make up the choir's part of the Proper of the Mass Graffiti - The term in common usage among archaeologists to designate a class of rude inscriptions scratched on the walls of ancient monuments, generally sepulchral, as distinguised from the formal inscriptions engraved on the tombs of the deceased Grail, The Holy - The name of a legendary sacred vessel, variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist or the dish of the Pascal lamb, and the theme of a famous medieval cycle of romance Grande Chartreuse, La - The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac Le - Founder of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, d. 1660 Gratian - Details on this Roman Emperor who was the son of Valentinian I. He was born at Sirmium, 359 and died at Lyons, 383 Greco, El - Spanish artist. Born in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; died at Toledo, 7 April, 1614 Greece - History of the country and church Greek Catholics in America - Includes the history and statistics Greek Church - Details the history and various divisions of the church Greek Orthodox Church in America - The name Orthodox Church is generally used to distinguish those of the Greek Rite who are not in communion with the Holy See Greek Rites - People who speak of the Greek Rite generally mean that of Constantinople Gregorian Chant - Short description and history, with links to more information Gregory I, Pope Saint - Biographical article on this Doctor of the Church, d. 604 Gregory II, Pope Saint - Also known as Gregory Junior, or Gregory the Younger, d. 731 Gregory III, Pope Saint - A Syrian, was elected the successor of Pope St. Gregory II by acclamation, d. 741 Gregory IV, Pope - Reigned 827-44 Gregory V, Pope - Reigned 996-999 Gregory VI, Pope - Reigned 1045-46 Gregory VI - Eleventh-century antipope Gregory VII, Pope Saint - Also known as Hildebrand: 'one of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs and one of the most remarkable men of all times.' He died in 1085. Biographical article Gregory VIII, Pope - Reigned 1187 Gregory VIII - Antipope placed upon the papal chair by Emperor Henry V, 8 March, 1118 Gregory IX - Reigned 1227-1241 Gregory X - Biographical article on this thirteenth-century pope. Includes bibliography Gregory XI - Reigned 1370-1378 Gregory XII - Reigned 1406-1415 Gregory XIII, Pope - Reigned 1572-1585 Gregory XIV, Pope - Reigned 1590-1591 Gregory XV, Pope - Reigned 1621-1623 Gregory XVI, Pope - Reigned 1831-1846 Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint - Biographical article on this Doctor of the Church, known in the Christian East as St. Gregory the Theologian Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint - Also known as Gregory Thaumaturgus, converted to Christianity by Origen, became a bishop, d. between 270 and 275 Gregory of Nyssa, Saint - Bishop, one of the Cappadocian Fathers, d. after 385 or 386 Gregory of Tours, Saint - Lengthy article about this bishop, historian, and theologian. He died in 593 or 594 Gregory the Illuminator - Patron of Armenia. Husband and father, bishop, d. possibly in 337 Groote, Gerard - Founder of the 'Brethren of the Common Life', b. 1340 at Deventer, Gelderland; d. 20 Aug., 1384 Guadalupe, Shrine of - Guadalupe is strictly the name of a picture, but was extended to the church containing the picture and to the town that grew up around Guaraní Indians - A tribal group of South America, having the former home territory chiefly between the Uruguay and lower Paraguay Rivers, in what is now Paraguay and the Provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios of Argentina Guardian Angels - The lowest orders of angels are sent to men Guardian Angels, Feast of - This feast, like many others, was local before it was placed in the Roman calendar Guayaquil - The capital of the Ecuadorian province of Guayas Guelphs and Ghibellines - Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the greater part of the later Middle Ages Guéranger, Prosper Louis Pascal - Benedictine and polygraph; b. 4 April, 1805, at Sable-sur-Sarthe; d. at Solesmes, 30 January, 1875 Guérin, Anne-Thérèse - In religion, Mother Theodore. Born at Etables (Cote du Nord), Brittany, France, 2 October, 1798; died 14 May, 1856 Guibert of Ravenna - An antipope, known as Clement III, 1080 (1084) to 1100; born at Parma about 1025; died at Civita Castellana, 8 Sept., 1100 Guido of Arezzo - Article with life and summary of his contributions to musical theory and composition Guilds - Voluntary associations for religious, social, and commercial purposes Guise, House of - A branch of the ducal family of Lorraine who played an important part in the religious troubles of France during the seventeenth century Gunpowder Plot, The - Oath taken May, 1604, plot discovered November, 1605. Robert Catesby, the originator of the Powder Plot, owned estates at Lapworth and Ashby St. Legers Gutenberg, Johann - Inventor of printing (1400-1467) Guyon, Jeanne-Marie-Bouvier de La Motte- - Essay on the life, experiences, and teachings of this seventeenth-century French mystic