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Tabernacle - Vessel holding the Blessed Sacrament Tabernacle - Old Testament precursor to the Temple Tabernacle Lamp - In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony without the veil Tabernacles, Feast of - One of the three great feasts of the Hebrew liturgical calendar Tabor, Mount - Distinguished among the mountains of Palestine for its picturesque site, its graceful outline, the remarkable vegetation which covers its sides of calcareous rock, and the splendour of the view from its summit Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria - Happily married for 48 years, became a Third Order Trinitarian, d. 1837 Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de - Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador (1754-1838) Talmud - A post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ('to teach'), and originally signified 'doctrine' or 'study' Taney, Roger Brooke - Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States Tantum Ergo - The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn of Corpus Christi Taoism - Religion derived from the philosophical doctrines of Lao-tze Tapestry - A fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering are combined Targum - The distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old Testament Tarragona - Its suffragans are Barcelona, Lerida, Gerona, Urgel, Vich, Tortosa, and Solsona Tarsicius, Saint - Was carrying the Blessed Sacrament on his person, and refused to surrender it when beset by a pagan mob. Martyr of the third or early fourth century Tarsus - A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima Tatian - A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed with certainty except that he was born in Assyria and that he was trained in Greek philosophy Tauler, John - Article on the life and teachings of this 14th-century German Dominican mystic and author Te Deum, The - An abbreviated title commonly given a hymn in rhythmical prose, of which the opening words, Te Deum Laudamus, formed its earliest known title Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri - Biographical article on the 'Lily of the Mohawks,' who died in 1680. Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha or Takwita Teleology - From Greek telos, end, and logos, science Telepathy - A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to denote 'the ability of one mind to impress or to be impressed by another mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense' Telesphorus, Pope Saint - Martyr, died c. 136 Te Lucis Ante Terminum - The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary Temperance - One of the four cardinal virtues Temperance Movements - Covers the history in Europe, the United States, and Canada Templars, The Knights - The earliest founders of the military orders Temple - The Latin form, templum, from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an uncovered area marked off by boundaries; especially the place marked off by the augurs to be excepted from all profane uses Temple of Jerusalem - In the Bible the sanctuary of Jerusalem bears the Hebrew name of Bet Yehovah (house of Jehovah) Temptation - An incitement to sin whether by persuasion or by the offer of some good or pleasure Temptation of Christ - Christ endured temptation only from without, inasmuch as His human nature was free from all concupiscence Ten Commandments, The - The fundamental obligations of religion and morality and embodying the revealed expression of the Creator's will in relation to man's whole duty to God and to his fellow-creatures Tenebræ - The name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three days of Holy Week Tenebrae Hearse - The triangular candlestick used in the Tenebrae service Terce - Essay on the office of Terce, the earliest of the 'little hours' in the day Teresa of Avila, Saint - Carmelite reformer and founder, mystic, author, d. 1582 Teresa of Lisieux, Saint - Short biographical article by Edith Donovan Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed - Guillotined at the Place du Trone Renverse (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 July, 1794 Terrestrial Paradise - The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden Tertiaries - Known as 'Third Orders', those persons who live according to the Third Rule of religious orders, either outside of a monastery in the world, or in a religious community Tertullian - Ecclesiastical writer in the second and third centuries Testament, Old - The Apostle St. Paul declares himself (II Cor., iii, 6) a minister 'of the new testament', and calls (iii, 14) the covenant entered into on Mount Sinai 'the old testament' Testament, New - Jesus Christ uses the words 'new testament' as meaning the alliance established by Himself between God and the world, and this is called 'new' as opposed to that of which Moses was the mediator Test-Oath, Missouri - The terms of the oath required the affiant to deny, not only that he had ever been in armed hostility to the United States, or to the lawful authorities thereof, but that he had ever 'by act or word', manifested his adherence to the cause of the enemies of the United States Tetzel, Johann - First public antagonist of Luther (1465-1519) Teutonic Order - A medieval military order modeled on the Hospitallers of St. John Texas - Includes geography, history, demographic, and government information Textual Criticism - The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work the autograph of which has been lost Thabor, Mount - Distinguished among the mountains of Palestine for its picturesque site, its graceful outline, the remarkable vegetation which covers its sides of calcareous rock, and the splendour of the view from its summit Thagaste - A titular see in Numidia Thais, Saint - A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century Thanksgiving before and after Meals - The word grace, which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English took the plural form graces, means nothing but thanksgiving Thanksgiving Day - The custom originated in 1621, when Governor Bradford of the Plymouth colony appointed a day for public praise and prayer after the first harvest Theatines - A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo Consiglieri, Bonifacio da Colle, and Giovanni Pietro Carafa, afterwards Pope Paul IV Theatre, The - All forms of the drama were banned by the Fathers of both East and West indiscriminately and in terms of the severest reprobation Thecla, Saints - The most famous of several saints named Thecla is Thecla of Iconium. Other saints of this name include a martyr from Gaza, an African martyr, one or two Roman martyrs, one who is purely legendary (Boniface and Thecla), and one St. Thecla of whom almost nothing is known Theft - The secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other Theocracy - A form of civil government in which God Himself is recognized as the head Theodicy - Term was introduced into philosophy by Leibniz Theodore I, Pope - Reigned from 642 to 649 Theodore II, Pope - Son of Photius Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia - Bishop in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer Theodore of Amasea, Saint - Soldier saint, martyred in 306. After refusing a court order to sacrifice to the gods, St. Theodore was released for a time of reflection--and burnt a pagan temple Theodoret - Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457 Theodoric the Great - King of the Ostrogoths Theodosius I - Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 January, 395 Theology, Ascetical - Briefly defined as the scientific exposition of Christian asceticism Theology, Dogmatic - That part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith concerning God and His works Theology, History of Dogmatic - Detailed article broken into time periods Theology, Moral - Limited to those doctrines which discuss the relations of man and his free actions to God and his supernatural end, and propose the means instituted by God for the attainment of that end Theology, Mystical - Mysticism and mystical prayer or contemplation considered from a Catholic perspective, along with a bibliography of famous Christian mystics Theology, Pastoral - The science of the care of souls Theology of Christ (Christology) - Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ Theophilus - Second-century Bishop of Antioch Theosophy - A term used in general to designate the knowledge of God supposed to be obtained by the direct intuition of the Divine essence Theotocopuli, Domenico - Spanish artist. Born in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; died at Toledo, 7 April, 1614 Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint - Short biographical article by Edith Donovan Thessalonians, Epistles to the - Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul Thessalonica - Titular metropolis in Macedonia Third Orders - Lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women who do not necessarily live in community and yet can claim to wear the habit and participate in the good works of some great order Thirty Years War - Though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance for the history of the whole of Europe Thomas the Apostle, Saint - Article on Thomas in Scripture and in legend Thomas à Kempis - Author of the 'Imitation of Christ', born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; died 25 July, 1471 Thomas Aquinas, Saint - Lengthy article on the life, writings, and influence of this philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church. Called the Angelic Doctor. Died in 1274 Thomas Becket, Saint - Biography of this martyr, also known as St. Thomas of Canterbury, where he was archbishop and where he was murdered in 1170 Thomas Christians, Saint - An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent from the Apostle St. Thomas Thomas More, Saint - Biographical article on the Lord Chancellor of England, and martyr. Beheaded 1535 Thomas of Celano - Franciscan poet and writer (1200-1255) Thomas of Villanova, Saint - Spanish Augustinian, d. 1555. Educator, diligent in almsgiving, Archbishop of Valencia Thomism - In a broad sense, the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas in philosophical and theological questions Thompson, Francis - Poet (1859-1907) Thorns, Crown of - Mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded to by the early Christian Fathers, such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and others, but there are comparatively few writers of the first six centuries who speak of it as a relic known to be still in existence Three Chapters - (1) the person and writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia; (2) certain writings of Theodoret of Cyrus; (3) the letter of Ibas to Maris Throne - The seat the bishop uses when not engaged at the altar Thundering Legion - The story of an expedition against the Quadi led by Emperor Marcus Aurelius Tiara - The papal crown, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, which is shaped like a bee-hive, has a small cross at its highest point Tiberias - Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda Tiberias, Sea of - So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1), otherwise known as 'the sea of Galilee' Tiberius - Brief biography of the second Roman emperor Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints - Roman martyrs, feast 11 August Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of - Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632 Time - Article explores two questions, What are the notes, or elements, contained in the subjective representation of time? and To what external reality does this representation correspond? Timothy and Titus, Epistles to - Disciples of St. Paul Timucua Indians - A principal group or confederacy of ancient Florida Tintoretto, Il - Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594 Tissot, James - French draughtsman and painter (1836-1902) Tithes - The tenth part of the increase arising from the profits of land and stock, alotted to the clergy for their support or devoted to religious or charitable uses Tithes, Lay - Ecclesiastical tithes, which in the course of time became alienated from the Church to lay proprietors Titian - Biography of the artist, with bibliography Titus - Biography of the first-century Roman Emperor Titus and Timothy, Epistles to - Disciples of St. Paul Tobias - Name of various persons and a book in the Bible Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de - Writer and statesman (1805-1859) Toledo (Spain) - Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost always to the dignity of cardinal, occupies the first place in the ranks of the higher Spanish clergy Toleration, Religious - The magnanimous indulgence one shows towards a religion other than his own, accompanied by the moral determination to leave it and its adherents unmolested in private and public, although internally one views it with complete disapproval as a 'false faith' Tomb - A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary - Explores the question where Mary died and was buried, either Jerusalem or Ephesus Tongues, Gift of - A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae, designed to aid in the outer development of the primitive Church Tonsure - A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized and confirmed Christian is received into the clerical order Torah - Signifies first 'direction, instruction', as, for instance, the instruction of parents, or of the wise Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint - Pioneering missionary archbishop of Lima, founded first seminary in the Americas, d. 1606 Torquemada, Tomás de - Grand Inquisitor of Spain (1420-1498) Torricelli, Evangelista - Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 October, 1647 Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo - Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer (1397-1482) Totemism - Constitutes the group of superstitions and customs of which the totem is the center Toulouse - Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne Tower of Babel - Information on the history, site, and construction of the tower Tradition and Living Magisterium - The word tradition refers sometimes to the thing (doctrine, account, or custom) transmitted from one generation to another sometimes to the organ or mode of the transmission Traditionalism - A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude Traducianism - In general the doctrine that, in the process of generation, the human spiritual soul is transmitted to the offspring by the parents Trajan - Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117 Transcendentalism - The terms transcendent and transcendental have antithetical reference to experience or the empirical order Transept - A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica Transfiguration - Culminating point of Christ's public life, as His Baptism is its starting point, and His Ascension its end Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the - Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. Matthew (Chapter 17) Transubstantiation - The change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the Body and Blood of Christ Trappists - The Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de Rance (b. 1626; d. 1700) in the Abbey of La Trappe, and often now applied to the entire Order of Reformed Cistercians Treason, Accusations of - A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics from 1570 onwards is the statement that the victims devoted to imprisonment, torture, and death suffered not for their religious belief but for treason against the queen and her government Trent - Diocese; suffragan of Salzburg Trent, Council of - Main object was the definitive determination of the doctrines of the Church in answer to the heresies of the Protestants Tribe, Jewish - The earlier Hebrew term rendered in English versions by the word 'tribe' is shebet, while the term matteh, prevails in the post-exilic writings Triduum - Three days. Frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices Trier - Diocese; suffragan of Cologne Trinitarians, Order of - Towards the end of the twelfth century the order had 250 houses throughout Christendom, where its benevolent work was manifested by the return of liberated captives Trinity, The Blessed - The term employed to signify the central doctrine of the Christian religion, the truth that in the unity of the Godhead there are three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, these three persons being truly distinct one from another Trinity Sunday - The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity Tritheists - Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity Trope - A collective name which, since about the close of the Middle Ages or a little later, has been applied to texts of great variety (in both poetry and prose) written for the purpose of amplifying and embellishing an independently complete liturgical text Truce of God - A temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God which is perpetual True Cross, The - (1) Growth of the Christian Cult; (2) Catholic Doctrine on the Veneration of the Cross; (3) Relics of the True Cross; (4) Principal Feasts of the Cross Trullo, Council in - Particular council held in A.D. 692 Trumpets, Feast of - The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year Trustee System - In the exercise of inherent rights of administering property, the Church often appoints deputies Truth - Defines ontological, logical, and moral truth Tuam - The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly speaking, from the Shannon westwards to the sea, and comprises half of County Galway, and nearly half of Mayo, with a small portion of south Roscommon Tunic - A vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper part only a slit for putting the garment over the head, and, on the sides, either sleeves or slits through which the arms can be passed Tunis - French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa Turin, Shroud of - A relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that it is the actual 'clean linen cloth' in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Jesus Christ Turkish Empire - Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the caliphate of Baghdad and independent Turkish principalities Types in Scripture - Offers several definitions Tyrannicide - The killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a tyrant by a private person for the common good Tyre - Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese